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Critical Reasoning: Boldface Type Questions

The music at live events and entertainment venues is played at much higher volume levels than it was 50 years ago. Some audiologists believe that hearing disorders will become more commonplace. Damage done to the auditory system is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to repair. Although some people are aware that music at very high volumes can cause damage, many refrain from taking the necessary precautions to prevent such damage.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

Incorrect.

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A fact is information which is definitely true. Although some audiologists believe that hearing disorders will become more commonplace, we cannot treat this statement as a definite fact, as it relates to an unknown future.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]

While this answer choice defines the first boldface part correctly, it defines the second incorrectly. A conclusion is a statement based on premises. The second boldface portion cannot be a conclusion because it gives us new information that is not supported by any part of the argument.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]



While this answer choice defines the first boldface part correctly, it defines the second incorrectly. An inference is another word for conclusion. It is a statement based on premises. The second boldface portion cannot be a conclusion because it gives us new information that is not supported by any part of the argument.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]



A premise is a hard fact. The first boldface portion cannot be a premise since it merely presents the beliefs of a group of people.

Right on!

[[snippet]]



The phrase Some audiologists believe is a hint that the statement is an opinion based on the data available. The second boldface portion, however, is factual and supports the audiologists' opinion.

The first is a fact presented by audiologists; the second is evidence which proves this fact.
The first is a theoretical prediction, the second is a conclusion to the argument.
The first is an opinion shared by certain audiologists; the second is a fact that supports this opinion.
The first is a premise that presents a future situation, the second is an explanation for the circumstances of this situation.
The first is a viewpoint shared by a number of professionals; the second is an inference based on this viewpoint.