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Critical Reasoning: Boldface Type Questions

Effective street lighting has been proven to reduce crime. The city of Shambolia improved its lighting especially in areas where crime levels were particularly high. No substantial change in the amount of criminal activity in those areas was reported. Improved lighting alone is not sufficient to combat crime.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

Incorrect.

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An opinion is someone's personal belief about a certain topic. The first boldface portion, however, is clearly factual. You can immediately eliminate answer choices that incorrectly define the first boldface part; do not waste time reading the rest.

Incorrect.

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A conclusion is a statement based on premises. The first boldface portion cannot be a conclusion because it gives us information that is not supported by any part of the argument. You can immediately eliminate answer choices that incorrectly define the first boldface part; do not waste time reading the rest.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]



While this answer choice defines the first boldface part correctly, it defines the second incorrectly. A conclusion is a statement based on premises. The second boldface portion cannot be based on the first boldface portion since these two statements contradict one another.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]



While this answer choice defines the first boldface part correctly, it defines the second incorrectly. An inference is another way of saying conclusion. It is a statement based on premises. The second boldface portion cannot be based on the first boldface portion since these two statements contradict one another.

Correct!

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Based on a "real-life" example (The city of Shambolia), which is an exception to the fact presented by the first premise, the author draws a conclusion that challenges the initial premise.

The first is a general opinion; the second opposes the idea expressed by this opinion.
The first is a conclusion; the second is a premise that contradicts this conclusion.
The first presents factual information; the second is a conclusion based on this information.
The first is a premise; the second concludes the argument by challenging this premise.
The first is a piece of evidence; the second makes an inference based on this evidence.