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Critical Reasoning: Inference Questions

To produce an exceptional chocolate, the use of the highest quality and most expensive ingredients, and the optimization of the complex heating and cooling process known as tempering, are both imperative factors. Chocolatier Q makes the most exceptional chocolate on the market although her production costs are lower than any in the industry. The ingredients and tempering process account for 90% of the expenses of chocolate production. The other 10% is spent on packaging done by an external company that provides the same service to all the chocolatiers in the industry, and at the same price.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following as a conclusion?



This conclusion goes too far beyond the premises given to us. The figure of 90% in Premise C represents the distribution of costs of the process in general. This figure cannot help us calculate Q's costs in relation to other chocolatiers.



This conclusion contradicts Premises A and B. We are told that chocolatier Q produces exceptional chocolate, and for that she must use the best ingredients, so it cannot be concluded that Q uses a lower grade ingredient.



This conclusion contradicts the argument. In Premise D we are told that all chocolatiers pay the same price for packaging.



This answer choice presents new information that is not mentioned in the argument, resembling an additional premise. Note that the question stem requires that we find a conclusion.

Excellent work!


According to the argument, Q must use the most expensive materials and pays the same price for the package as other chocolatiers do. However, she still boasts the lowest total costs so the secret must be in the only remaining factor - her tempering process, which is the most efficient (and therefore cheap).

Errors in the tempering process can result in the chocolate not reaching its correct solidified state.
Q's production costs can amount to almost 90% less than those spent by other chocolatiers in the industry.
Chocolatier Q cuts her costs by using a slightly lower grade of one of her ingredients while compensating for this with the highest standard for all the others.
Chocolatier Q enjoys a lower price for the packaging process.
Chocolatier Q has the most efficient tempering process of any chocolatier in the industry.