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Sentence Correction: Concise vs. Short & Redundant vs. Long

Pigeons, which are familiar to the inhabitants of cities around the world, produces crop milk, which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the alimentary tract.

Although this answer choice corrects the original Subject Verb Agreement error by matching the singular subject pigeon with the singular verb produces, it is illogical. The relative clause which is familiar to the inhabitants of cities around the world is clearly intended to modify the noun pigeon. However, it immediately follows the noun crop milk.

What helps us identify this question as a Relative Clause question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:

who, which, that, whose, whom

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The plural subject Pigeons does not agree with the singular verb produces.

What helps us identify this question as a Subject Verb Agreement question as well as identify this mistake is the following Stop Sign:

A long complex subject / long distance between the subject and the verb  

Although this answer choice corrects the original Subject Verb Agreement error by matching the plural subject pigeons with the plural verb produce, it is illogical. The relative clause which secrete it by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells is clearly intended to modify the noun pigeon. However, it immediately follows the noun crop milk.

What helps us identify this question as a Relative Clause question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:

who, which, that, whose, whom

Although this answer choice corrects the original Subject Verb Agreement error by matching the plural subject Pigeons with the plural verb produce, the omission of the phrase the lining of results in some meaning loss as in the original sentence it gives us information about the part of the alimentary tract that secretes the fluid-filled cells.

Do not automatically choose the shortest answer choice. Make sure that shorter answers express the same meaning that's been stated in the original sentence. If they don't, they're probably incorrect.

Good job!

This answer choice corrects the original Subject Verb Agreement error by matching the plural subject pigeons with the plural verb produce. It also places the relative clause which are familiar to the inhabitants of cities around the world directly after the noun it describes (Pigeons).

Pigeons, which are familiar to the inhabitants of cities around the world, produces crop milk, which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of
The pigeon produces crop milk, which is familiar to the inhabitants of cities around the world, secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of
Familiar to the inhabitants of cities around the world, pigeons produce crop milk, which secrete it by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of
Pigeons, which are familiar to the inhabitants of cities around the world, produce crop milk, which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of
Pigeons, familiar to the inhabitants of cities around the world, produce crop milk, which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from