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Sentence Correction: Subject Verb Agreement - A Complex Subject/Long Distance between Subject and Verb

Scientists believe that the discovery of what we now label Deep Sky Objects are as old as humankind.

Correct!

This answer choice corrects the original grammatical mistake, by changing the plural verb are to the singular verb is. The subject is the discovery of what we now label Deep Sky Objects. When the subject is in the form of X of Y, the verb should agree with X. Thus, the verb should agree with the singular noun discovery

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original Subject Verb Agreement mistake, it does not stop there and makes another change: omitting the word as in the phrase as old as. Since there is another answer choice that corrects the original mistake without making any further changes, it is better than this one.

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the original Subject Verb Agreement mistake. The subject is the discovery of what we now label Deep Sky Objects. When the subject is in the form of X of Y, the verb should agree with X. Thus, the verb should agree with the singular noun discovery. However, the verb are is plural, hence the Subject Verb Disagreement.

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect: there is a disagreement between the subject and the verb. The subject is the discovery of what we now label Deep Sky Objects. When the subject is in the form of X of Y, the verb should agree with X. Thus, the verb should agree with the singular noun discovery. However, the verb are is plural, hence the Subject Verb Disagreement.

[[snippet]]
we now label Deep Sky Objects are as old as humankind
we now label as Deep Sky Objects are as old as mankind
is now labeled Deep Sky Objects are old as mankind
we now label Deep Sky Objects is old as mankind 
we now label Deep Sky Objects is as old as mankind is