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Sentence Correction: Redundancy - one/two/three/four times

In a recent study, researchers estimated that U.S. pharmaceutical companies spend almost two times as much on marketing their products as they do on developing them, as doing so is more crucial to their financial stability.

Incorrect.

While the answer choice corrects the redundant phrase two times by replacing it with twice, it repeats the original stylistic flaw.  The phrase as doing so, while grammatically correct, is ambiguous, as it can refer either to marketing or developing.

Well done!

This answer choice corrects the original redundant phrase two times. It also eliminates the ambiguity of the original sentence by specifying that the marketing of their products is the action that is crucial to stability.

Incorrect.

Although this answer choice corrects the original Stylistic flaw by changing two times as much to twice as much, it is grammatically incorrect. A pronoun (in this case, it) refers to a previously mentioned noun. If we wish to refer to a previously mentioned verb, we need to use the phrase to do so or doing so.

What helps us identify this question as a Pronoun question is the following Stop Sign:

Any pronoun in the underlined part or after it.

Incorrect.

Although this answer choice corrects the original Stylistic flaw by changing two times as much to twice as much, it is grammatically incorrect. A pronoun (in this case, it) refers to a previously mentioned noun. If we wish to refer to a previously mentioned verb, we need to use the phrase to do so or doing so.

What helps us identify this question as a Pronoun question is the following Stop Sign:

Any pronoun in the underlined part or after it.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is stylistically flawed. Two times is redundant as the same meaning can be expressed in fewer words. Look for a more concise answer choice.

What helps us identify this question as a Redundancy question as well as identify this mistake is the following Stop Sign:    

(multiplied) one/two/three/four times

In addition, the phrase as doing so is ambiguous, as it can refer either to marketing or developing.

two times as much on marketing their products as they do on developing them, as doing so
twice as much on marketing their products as they do on developing them, as it
twice as much on marketing their products as they do on developing them, for it
twice as much on marketing their products as they do on developing them, as the marketing of their products
twice as much on marketing their products as they do on developing them, as doing so