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Sentence Correction: Subject Verb Agreement - A Pseudo-Plural Singular Subject

If the null hypothesis is rejected by a one-way analysis of variance, further analysis are necessary to determine which population means differ from the others. 

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The singular subject analysis does not agree with the plural verb are.

[[snippet]]

Analysis is a confusing subject. It ends with -s, which might make us think of it as a plural subject, but it is, in fact, singular (its plural form is analyses).

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original Subject Verb Agreement mistake, it creates a new one: the singular subject hypothesis does not agree with the plural verb are.

[[snippet]]

Hypothesis is a confusing subject. It ends with -s, which might make us think of it as a plural subject, but it is, in fact, singular (its plural form is hypotheses).

Well done! In this answer choice, a singular verb correctly follows both hypothesis and analysis.  

This answer choice corrects the original Subject Verb Agreement mistake and is grammatically correct. However, it is stylistically flawed. Replacing the single word differ with the two-word phrase are different creates redundancy.

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the original mistake. The singular subject analysis does not agree with the plural verb are.

[[snippet]]

Analysis is a confusing subject. It ends with -s, which might make us think of it as a plural subject, but it is, in fact, singular (its plural form is analyses).

In addition, this answer choice creates another Subject Verb Agreement mistake. The plural subject hypotheses does not agree with the singular verb is.    

hypothesis is rejected by a one-way analysis of variance, further analysis are necessary to determine which population means differ
hypothesis are rejected by a one-way analysis of variance, further analysis is necessary to determine which population means differ
hypothesis is rejected by a one-way analysis of variance, further analysis is necessary to determine which population means differ
hypothesis is rejected by a one-way analysis of variance, further analysis is necessary to determine which population means are different
hypotheses is rejected by a one-way analysis of variance, further analysis are necessary to determine which population means differ