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The author mentions geyser-like eruptions most probably in order to
The scientists mentioned in the second paragraph believe in the existence of liquid water on Mars' surface; the author mentions the geyser-like eruptions as a detail in their hypothesis about Mars previous state.
Since geyser-like eruptions involve water, their existence cannot support the claim that there is no water on Mars.
While it is true that we know of geyser-like eruptions thanks to the spacecrafts exploring Mars, this is not the reason for mentioning them. The way in which this information was obtained is secondary to the conclusion which scientists reached on the basis of this information.
According to the passage, this answer choice is incorrect. Geyser-like eruptions might have occurred in Mars in the near past (up to recent years), but this is no longer the case.
The ongoing debate is the subject of the fourth paragraph, not the second, so it is unlikely the author used this detail to stress the debate. Furthermore, mentioning geyser-like eruptions in itself does not show the reader that the debate is far from being resolved, so it cannot be used for this purpose.