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Critical Reasoning: Boldface Type Questions

One of the main causes for air pollution and depletion of oil reserves in Country X is the use of petrol as fuel in most cars. In recent years, however, the Ministry of Environmental Protection has managed to impose high tax rates on the acquisition of new petrol-fuelled cars, and last year an additional Gas Emissions tax was applied to all petrol-fuelled car owners. Since owning a petrol-based car has now become a significant financial liability, car drivers nationwide are replacing their old petrol-only cars with hybrid cars or bio-diesel-fuelled cars, which create less pollution and consume less, if any, petrol. It is foreseen that this step will lead to a decrease in pollution and to the stabilization of oil prices over the next decade or two.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

Very good!

[[snippet]]

The first portion in boldface type contains evidence (i.e., premise) describing a relationship of cause and effect: financial liability is the cause; the effect is that car drivers are replacing their old petrol-only cars. The second portion in boldface type is the argument's conclusion.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]

The first portion in boldface type indeed contains evidence (i.e., premise) describing a relationship of cause and effect: financial liability is the cause; the effect is that car drivers are replacing their old petrol-only cars.

The second part of this answer choice, however, incorrectly defines the second portion in boldface type as further evidence (i.e., premise).

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]

This answer choice can be ruled out purely on the basis of its first part. The first portion in boldface type is not the argument's conclusion but rather a premise.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]

This answer choice can be ruled out purely on the basis of its first part. The first portion in boldface type is not the argument's conclusion but rather a premise.

The second part of this answer choice is also incorrect as it defines the second boldface type portion as evidence when, in fact, it is the argument's conclusion.   

The first is evidence describing a relationship of cause and effect; the second is further evidence focusing on the effect.
The first is evidence describing a relationship of cause and effect; the second is further evidence focusing on the cause.
The first is the argument's conclusion; the second is evidence describing a relationship of cause and effect contradicting that conclusion.
The first is evidence describing a relationship of cause and effect; the second is the argument's conclusion.
The first is the argument's conclusion; the second is the evidence on which this conclusion is based.