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Sentence Correction: Subject Verb Agreement Questions - Overview

La Niña, whose name alludes to the opposite phenomenon El Niño, a phenomenon characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific.

Very good!

The original sentence lacked a verb to go with the subject La Niña. This answer choice corrects the original grammatical mistake by introducing the verb is, so that La Niña is a phenomenon, etc. 

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb, and this sentence only has a subject.

Incorrect.

This answer choice both repeats the original grammatical mistake and is stylistically flawed (redundant).

The grammatical mistake is that every sentence must have a subject and a verb, and this sentence only has a subject.

The redundancy is created by the addition of the words which is after the word phenomenon

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original mistake, it is stylistically flawed (redundant). The redundancy is created by the addition of the words that is after the word phenomenon.

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the original mistake: every sentence must have a subject and a verb, and this sentence only has a subject.

In addition, this answer choice changes the meaning of the original sentence by relating to the weather two phenomena as one, although the original sentence treats them separately. 

a phenomenon characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in
a phenomenon which is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures within
is a phenomenon that is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures within
is a phenomenon characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in
phenomena in which unusually cold ocean temperatures in