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Sentence Correction: Subject Verb Agreement Questions - Overview

Although a baby is already born with a sense of hearing, it is quite rudimentary, which means that it can hear high pitched sounds better and respond better to cooing, baby talk and, especially, feminine voices.

Excellent!

This answer choice corrects the original Pronoun ambiguity mistake by changing the singular noun baby to the plural babies, and correcting the second it (singular) to they (plural). In the corrected sentence, babies is referred to by they and a sense of hearing is referred to by it, thus eliminating the original stylistic flaw of ambiguity.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is stylistically flawed, because it contains a Pronoun Ambiguity mistake. The original uses the pronoun it twice. The first time, it refers to a sense of hearing, but the second time it refers to a baby, creating an ambiguous sentence. It is not clear which noun it refers to.

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

While this answer choice attempts to correct the original Pronoun ambiguity mistake by changing the singular noun baby to the plural babies, it fails to correct the relevant pronoun from singular to plural, and thus creates a Pronoun Agreement mistake. The second it  (before the verb can) is singular and thus does not agree with the plural noun babies to which it refers.

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the original Pronoun ambiguity mistake: the pronoun it appears twice. The first time, it refers to a sense of hearing, but the second time it refers to a baby. It is not clear which noun it refers to. This makes the answer choice stylistically flawed.

[[snippet]]

In addition, this answer choice is redundant as a result of replacing the single word Although with the wordy phrase Despite the fact that.   

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the original Pronoun Ambiguity mistake: the pronoun it appears twice. The first time, it refers to a sense of hearing, but the second time it refers to a baby. This makes the answer choice stylistically flawed. It is not clear which noun it refers to.

[[snippet]]

Furthermore, this answer choices doesn't fit into the original sentence and thereby creates a Subject Verb Agreement mistake. Changing it can hear to it hears would require  the following parallel verb to be responds - to agree with the singular subject it. However, the verb outside the underlined section is respond, which does not match the singular subject it.

In the original sentence/other answer choices, the verbal form can hear has two elements: can is conjugated and hear is in the base form, and therefore in the original sentence respond can be construed as the base form and be correctly parallel to hear

Although a baby is already born with a sense of hearing, it is quite rudimentary, which means that it can hear
Although babies are already born with a sense of hearing, it is quite rudimentary, which means that it can hear
Despite the fact that a baby is already born with a sense of hearing, it is quite rudimentary, which means that it can hear
Although babies are already born with a sense of hearing, it is quite rudimentary, which means that they can hear 
Although a baby is already born with a good sense of hearing, it is quite rudimentary, meaning it hears 

But why was respond okay in the other answer choices, where the subject is also it?