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Which of the following statements about Chayanov's consumption-labor-balance principle is not supported by information in the passage?
This answer choice incorrectly states that Russian peasants were only concerned with leisure time, not with the products of their investments of time (i.e. their work). However, the passage tells us that Russian peasants were concerned with providing for their own basic needs via work, so it is not correct to say that they were not concerned with the products of their work at all.
The passage explicitly states that Russian peasants feared that any extra income would be taxed by the government or taken by their lords (i.e. confiscated) and that they did not have many material needs (i.e. needs beyond basic sustenance).
We know that the amount of time Russian peasants worked was related to the ratio of workers to consumers. Therefore, a household with fewer workers would have to work more than a family with the same number of consumers but more workers, making the statement in this answer choice possible, according to the principle.
The first sentence of the second paragraph tells us that Chayanov's theories, including the consumption-labor-balance principle, go beyond general economic theory, including neoclassical economics (which is, as we know from the first paragraph, the idea that people are motivated by maximizing their income-constrained utility, or profit).
The first sentence of the second paragraph expliticly states that Chayanov's theories go beyond neoclassical economics, and the second sentence of the third paragraph also states that the theories of the 1970s agrarian historians do the same.