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Reading Comprehension: Application Questions

Which of the following arguments most closely parallels the reasoning behind the author's analysis of the first hypothesis?

Excellent!

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This answer choice tells us that although this theory is supported by other theoretical evidence (speculations), it is flawed (cast into doubt) because of empirical evidence (recent findings) to the contrary.

Incorrect.

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This answer choice suggests that the empirical evidence (tests) is not enough to disprove a theory. We are looking for an answer choice that has been proven to be flawed by experimental evidence.

Incorrect.

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The author believes that support for a hypothesis should not come from another hypothesis but from empirical evidence.

Incorrect.

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The author believes that hypotheses should be discounted due to empirical evidence and not on the basis of their agreement or disagreement with other theories. This answer choice ignores the evidence and relies on the hypothesis relation to other theories.

Incorrect.

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The author believes that hard evidence (the results of experiments and tests) does influence, or, has a bearing on, hypotheses. In other words, the author would not agree that the tests should be ignored.

Tests revealing that hummingbirds can measure the amount of sugar in nectar have no bearing on the hypothesis that hummingbirds choose the flowers they pollinate.
Despite the empirical evidence that queen termites reproduce with many mates, the hypothesis that termite colonies contain a monogamous royal couple should be discounted purely on the basis of its disagreement with the Insect Mating Hypothesis.
The hypothesis that dust mites are a cause of asthma should be accepted as fact because it fits with the hypothesis that the fecal matter of insects contain allergenic enzymes.
Despite speculations that blowfish are similar to chameleons, the theory that blowfish use camouflage to defend themselves has been cast into doubt because of recent findings that their particular form of movement influences their natural defenses.
Although tests have shown that entognatha are similar to secondary insects, scientists need more evidence to disprove the theory that they are derived from winged ancestors.