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Sentence Correction: Tenses - Past Perfect

As early as the Paleolithic period, prehistoric cave dwellers hunted the large mammals of their environment and paint murals of these hunting scenes.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. Past Perfect describes an action that had been completed before a certain point in time in the past or an action that had been completed before another action in the past. However, from the context of the sentence it is clear that the prehistoric cave dwellers hunted first and only then painted the murals.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original mistake and is grammatically correct, it changes the meaning of the original sentence by replacing the addition word and with the opposition word but.

This change produces an illogical sentence as the first part of the sentence is not opposed to the second part.  

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the original mistake. The sentence begins in the Past tense with the phrase Prehistoric cave dwellers hunted. By default, this sentence should remain in the Past tense. Have painted, however, is in the Present (Present Perfect). Remember our rule:

Once in the Past, always in the Past.

The use of the Present tense is also illogical: Prehistoric cave dwellers are long dead.

Well done!

This answer choice corrects the original question by changing the present tense verb (paint) to the Past (painted) in a sentence that is anchored in the past.

Remember our rule:

Once in the Past, always in the Past.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The sentence begins in the Past tense with the phrase Prehistoric cave dwellers hunted. By default, this sentence should remain in the Past tense. The verb paint, however, is in the Present. Remember our rule:

Once in the Past, always in the Past.

The use of the Present tense is also illogical: Prehistoric cave dwellers are long dead, so they can't paint murals.

environment and paint

environment and painted

environment and have painted

environs but painted

environs and had painted