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In 1958, Jack Kilby was the first scientist to build an integrated circuit (known also as a microchip), by fabricating a miniaturized electronic circuit on a thin surface of semiconductor material, which became an invention such that revolutionized the field of electronics.
While this answer choice is grammatically correct, it is stylistically flawed. The phrase became an invention such that revolutionized is awkward and redundant. First, the electronic circuit did not become an invention - it was an invention. Second, the words such that are not necessary to understand the meaning.
This answer choice repeats the original stylistic flaw. The phrase which became an invention to revolutionize is awkward and redundant. First, the electronic circuit did not become an invention - it was an invention. Second, the construction an invention to revolutionize is incorrect; this construction works only when it is combined with a comparative, e.g. the most significant invention to revolutionize, or the latest invention to revolutionize, etc.
While this answer choice corrects the original redundancy, it is grammatically incorrect. Using the V+ing semiconducting as an adjective where there is already a non V+ing form (semiconductor) is incorrect.
While this answer choice corrects the original redundancy, it is grammatically incorrect. The relative pronoun which must refer to the preceding noun or noun phrase..However, in this instance, it is not possible to tell what the _which_ refers to as it is quite far away from the noun or noun phrase it is supposed to modify.
What helps us identify this question as a Relative Clause question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:
whose, which, that, whose, whom
This answer choice corrects the redundancy in the original question by changing the phrase became an invention such that revolutionized to an invention that revolutionized.