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In anthropologist René Girard's theory of "mimetic rivalry", the desire to have what another person wants generates violence that is channeled by the "scapegoat mechanism" into the religious institution of sacrifice.
This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The sentence makes use of the defining/restrictive pronoun that to define violence (violence that is channeled by the "scapegoat" mechanism). However, it is illogical to restrict the meaning and say that mimetic rivalry generates only a certain kind of violence - the kind that is channeled. This does not make sense, since the channeling of the violence is the solution to the violence - not a definition of the violence.
Search for an answer choice that correctly uses a relative pronoun to logically modify violence.
While this answer choice corrects the original relative clause mistake, it is grammatically incorrect. The relative pronoun which must appear after a comma (,).
In addition, this answer choice creates a Parts of Speech mistake because it unnecessarily changes the original adjective religious to the noun religion. The noun institution should be modified by an adjective, not a noun.
This answer choice corrects the original relative pronoun mistake by replacing the defining relative pronoun that with the non-defining relative pronoun which and by correctly adding a comma before which.
This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The relative pronoun that cannot follow a comma.
In addition, by changing the religious institution into religion's institution, this answer choice creates a new grammatical mistake. Expressing possession using 's is only allowed with concrete (that is, tangible, or not abstract) nouns. Religion is an abstract noun. For example:
Incorrect: love's power
Correct: the power of love
While this answer choice corrects the original relative pronoun mistake, it is grammatically incorrect. Adding the article a before violence creates a Parts of Speech mistake: the noun violence is a non-count noun and should not be preceded by an article.