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According to economist Amartya Sen, the mortality rates that are measured within a particular society represent a valid test of economic performance and often an indicator of social inequalities reflecting gender gaps and racial biases.
This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. In the phrase ... and often an indicator of social inequalities, often is an adverb but it has no verb or adjective to describe.
In addition, the use of the words that are before measured is redundant. The same meaning can be expressed without these words.
This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The singular verb represents does not match the plural subject mortality rates.
What helps us identify this question as a Subject Verb Agreement question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:
A long distance between subject and verb
In addition, this answer choice repeats the original stylistic flaw: the use of the words that are before measured is redundant. The same meaning can be expressed without these words.
This answer choice repeats the original grammatical mistake. In the phrase ... and often an indicator of social inequalities, often is an adverb but it has no verb or adjective to describe.
This answer choice also repeats the original stylistic flaw by replacing that are with being, both of which are redundant.
While this answer choice corrects the original Parts of Speech mistake and redundancy, it is grammatically incorrect. The singular count noun society is not preceded by an article.
This answer choice corrects the Parts of Speech mistake in the original sentence by changing the noun indicator into a verb indicate. As a result the adverb often is correctly used to describe a verb, and the intended meaning of the sentence is clearer:
Original: mortality rates ... represent a valid test ... and [are] often an indicator of social inequalities
This answer choice: mortality rates represent a valid test ... and often indicate social inequalities
Note that by changing indicator to indicate, the sentence's parallelism is not harmed. In the original sentence the parallelism was of two nouns (valid test and indicator), and represent was the controlling part. In the corrected sentence the parallelism is of two verbs (represent and indicate). The meaning of the sentence is not affected by this change.
Also, this answer choice is more concise than the original as it omits the redundant that are before measured.