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Sentence Correction: Sentence vs. Clause vs. Fragment

Separating the Indian subcontinent from Eurasia, the Himalaya formed about 70 million years ago from the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian-plate collided, moving at a pace of about 15 cm a year.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect; it uses the preposition from to connect two clauses, instead of using a conjunction.

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original clauses mistake, it is grammatically incorrect. Placing a comma between the subject Himalaya and the verb formed turns the rest of the sentence to a modifier of Himalaya, which leaves it without a verb.

... the Himalaya  [, formed about 70 million years ago from the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian-plate collided, moving at a pace of about 15 cm a year]   ?????  .

Hence, this sentence is a fragment.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original clauses mistakes, it introduces a new one. Using both the connector and and the conjunction when requires three clauses, but this sentence has only two:

 ... the Himalaya formed ...  AND [ WHEN [the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian-plate collided ]  ????????  ]

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the original clauses mistake; it uses the preposition from to connect two clauses, instead of using a conjunction.

[[snippet]]

In addition, by changing the conjugated verb formed to the non-conjugated verb forming, this answer choice becomes a fragment lacking a conjugated verb.

Well done!

This answer choice corrects the original clauses mistake by replacing from with when to correctly connect the main clause (the Himalaya formed) with the sentence's secondary clause (the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian-plate collided).

Himalaya formed about 70 million years ago from
Himalaya formed about 70 million years ago and when
Himalaya, formed about 70 million years ago when
Himalaya forming about 70 million years ago from
Himalaya formed about 70 million years ago when