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Sentence Correction: Dangling Modifiers - Overview

Gustav Klimt, in his leadership of the Vienna Secession, lending more ideological and material support to the Stylist faction of this movement, led to the severance of his cohort from the more conservative Naturalist artists.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]

This answer choice is stylistically flawed. The placement of the modifier lending more [...] immediately after Vienna Secession creates ambiguity, as it is not clear what or whom lending refers to (Klimt, his leadership, or the Vienna Secession).

Moreover, placing two modifiers one after the other is wordy and awkward.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]

This answer choice is stylistically flawed. The placement of the modifier lending more [...] immediately after Vienna Secession creates ambiguity, as it is not clear what or whom lending refers to (Klimt, his leadership, or the Vienna Secession).

Moreover, placing two modifiers one after the other is wordy and awkward.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original ambiguity, it fails to capture the original meaning of the sentence. This answer choice creates a parallelism between the verbs lent and led, presenting both logical equalsthings Gustav Klimt did during his leadership. However, in the original sentence, lent describes the nature of Klimt's leadership whereas led describes the result of this style of leadership.

This is a very fine point; however, there is an answer choice which is both grammatically correct and conveys the essence of the sentence more accurately. Remember, you are looking for the best answer choice, not just any valid answer choice.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original ambiguity, it does not fit into the original sentence. The second modifying phrase in his leadership of the Vienna Secession should be separated from the rest of the sentence by two commas. However, the corrected sentence lacks a final comma after Secession.

Well done!

[[snippet]]

This answer choice corrects the original ambiguity by changing the modifier lending more [...] to a relative clause in which he lent (making it clear that it was Klimt who lent).

This achieves greater clarity because it avoids the awkwardness of placing two modifiers one after the other. The relative clause now describes the nature of Klimt's leadership, whereas the main verb led describes its results.

Gustav Klimt, in his leadership of the Vienna Secession, lending more ideological and material support to the Stylist faction of this movement,
In his leadership of the Vienna Secession, lending more ideological and material support to the Stylist faction of this movement, Gustav Klimt,
Gustav Klimt, in his leadership of the Vienna Secession, lent more ideological and material support to the Stylist faction of the movement and
In his leadership of the Vienna Secession, in which he lent more ideological and material support to the Stylist faction of this movement, Gustav Klimt
Lending more ideological and material support to the Stylist faction of the movement, Gustav Klimt, in his leadership of the Vienna Secession