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Sentence Correction: Parallelism - A and/or/but B

Inspired by Hegel and later developed by Marx, the dialectical method is a style of philosophical reasoning which presents a thesis, only to be countered by its antithesis, and finally is resolved by means of an ultimate synthesis that integrates elements of the first two phases.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The parallelism (list) in the sentence requires that all items be grammatically parallel. However, items A and C are conjugated verbs (presents, is resolved) whereas item B is a prepositional phrase (only to be countered).

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In addition, this answer choice is stylistically flawed. Using the passive form (to be countered, is resolved) creates redundancy.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original stylistic flaw, it repeats the original Parallelism mistake. The parallelism (list) in the sentence requires that all items be grammatically parallel. However, item A is a conjugated verb (presents) whereas items B and C are unconjugated verbs (countering, synthesizing).

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Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect and illogical. It breaks the original 3-item list by connecting the last two items with the relative pronoun whose. As a result, the new 2-item list is missing the connector and.

In addition, the relative clause whose ultimate resolution... is placed right after the noun antithesis but this changes the meaning of the sentence, in which the resolution was of the philosophical reasoning and not just the antithesis.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects both the original Parallelism mistake and the stylistic flaw, it creates a new Parallelism mistake. The parallelism (list) in the sentence requires that all items be separated by commas only, except for the last item, which is also preceded by and/or. Here, however, there is no and before resolves.

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Excellent work!

This answer choice corrects the logical mistake by creating a parallel construction of three conjugated verbs presents, counters, and arrives (which logically match the subject a style of philosophical reasoning).

This answer choice also corrects the original stylistic flaw by changing the passive constructions to be countered and is resolved to the active voice.

only to be countered by its antithesis, and finally is resolved by means of an ultimate synthesis
counters the thesis with an antithesis, and arrives at a resolution by means of an ultimate synthesis
countering with its antithesis, and then synthesizing an ultimate resolution
is then countered by an antithesis, whose ultimate resolution is by means of a synthesis
counters with an antithesis, resolves by means of an ultimate synthesis