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Sentence Correction: Tenses - Past Simple and Progressive

As recounted in The Man with a Shattered World, Lev Zazetsky, the lifelong patient of Russian neuropsychologist Alexander Luria, fought in the Battle of Smolensk at the age of 23, was injured by a bullet that entered his brain, and suffering from a severe form of agnosia because of the coma into which he had fallen, only with great perseverance managed to recover parts of his fragmented world.

Incorrect.

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This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The parallelism (list) in the sentence requires that all items be grammatically parallel. However, the first two items are conjugated verbs (fought, was injured) whereas the third item is unconjugated (suffering).

In addition, the placement of and before the third item makes the fourth item a fragment.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. It uses the Past Perfect (had managed), which should only be used to describe an action that happened before another action in the past. However, the patient Lev Zazetsky managed a partial recovery, only after the actions described earlier in the sentence.

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This answer choice also introduces a stylistic issue by connecting the first two items by and, making them into a single item without any logical reason to do so.

Incorrect.

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This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. First, it connects a conjugated verb (fought) with an unconjugated verb (being injured) using and, but in such a parallelism all items must be grammatically parallel. 

Second, it uses the Past Progressive, which should be used only to describe actions that were in progress in the past. However, the original sentence describes a sequence of events in the Past Simple, and nothing in the sentence indicates that the final verb in the list should be in a different tense. The sequence of events is most clearly expressed with parallel verbs in the same tense.

Excellent work!

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This answer choice maintains the sequence of Past Simple verbs in the list: fought, was injured, fell, and managed. It also elegantly connects the clause suffered from... to the word coma using the relative pronoun  due to which.

Incorrect.

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This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. It uses the Present Perfect has fallen, which should only be used to describe actions that occurred in the past and are still relevant in the present.

Since the sentence describes a sequence of events in the Past Simple, and nothing in the sentence indicates that any verb in the list should be in a different tense, the sequence of events is most clearly expressed with parallel verbs in the same tense.

23, was injured by a bullet that entered his brain, and suffering from a severe form of agnosia because of the coma into which he had fallen, only with great perseverance managed
23 and was injured by a bullet that entered his brain, fell into a coma, suffered from a severe form of agnosia and only with great perseverance had managed
23 and being injured by a bullet that entered his brain, fell into a coma, suffered from a severe form of agnosia and only with great perseverance was managing
23, was injured by a bullet that entered his brain, fell into a coma due to which he suffered from a severe form of agnosia, and only with great perseverance managed
23, was injured by a bullet that entered his brain, has fallen into a coma due to which he suffered from a severe form of agnosia and only with great perseverance managed