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Sentence Correction: Preposition and Idiom Questions - Overview

If it is true that Netherlands' manufacturing sector declined in the 1970s as a result from the discovery of a natural gas field in 1959, other countries with newly-found natural resources are expecting a similar shock to their economies, and should pursue policies that will help them avoid what in 1977 the Economist termed "Dutch disease".

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The beginning of the sentence If it is true... is the condition part of a Conditional 1 sentence (if + Present Simple). The result part of this conditional should be in either Present Simple or Future tense, but other countries ... are expecting is in the Present Progressive tense.

In addition, this answer choice makes incorrect use of an idiom: it uses as a result from but the correct idiom is as a result of.

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original idiom mistake, it repeats the Conditionals mistake. The beginning of the sentence If it is true... is the condition part of a Conditional 1 sentence (if + Present Simple). The result part of this conditional should be in either Present Simple or Future tense, but other countries ... are expecting is in the Present Progressive tense.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original Conditional mistake, it is does not fit in the sentence. Grammatically, the modifier resulting from can only modify a noun, but (a) none of the nouns that precede it (Netherlands, sector, 1970s) can be logically modified by it and (b) following the original sentence, it should modify the verb declined (the discovery caused the sector to decline). 

Furthermore, this modifier should be separated from the sentence by commas: in the 1970s , resulting from... ,

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The beginning of the sentence If it is true... is the condition part of a Conditional 1 sentence (if + Present Simple). The result part of this conditional should be in either Present Simpleor Future tense, but other countries ... have expected is in the Present Perfect tense.

Furthermore, this answer choice changes the meaning of the sentence by reversing the cause and effect relationship: where the original indicates [effect] as a result from [cause], this answer choice denotes [cause] resulting in [effect].

Lastly, the modifier resulting in should be separated from the sentence by commasin the 1970s , resulting in... ,

Excellent work!

This answer choice corrects both mistakes in the original sentence: the Conditionals mistake, by changing the result part from are expecting (Present Progressive) to can expect (Present Simple), and the Idioms mistake by changing as a result from to as a result of.

[[snippet]]
as a result from the discovery of a natural gas field in 1959, other countries with newly-found natural resources are expecting
as a result of the discovery of a natural gas field in 1959, other countries with newly-found natural resources are expecting
resulting from the discovery of a natural gas field in 1959, other countries with newly-found natural resources can expect
as a result of the discovery of a natural gas field in 1959, other countries with newly-found natural resources can expect
resulting in the discovery of a natural gas field in 1959, other countries with newly-found natural resources have expected