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Sentence Correction: Tenses - Present Perfect

The ancient Sanskrit epic, the Mahabharata, developed through a long process of oral recitation; tradition names the poet Vyasa as author of the core section of 8,000 verses from which is evolved the 24,000 verse redaction of Vaisampayana and the 100,000 verse redaction of Ugrasrava Sauti.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The singular verb is does not agree with the plural subject the 24,000 verse redaction of Vaisampayana and the 100,000 verse redaction of Ugrasrava Sauti.

[[snippet]]

In addition, this answer choices makes incorrect use of the Present Tense (is evolved) to describe an action that occurred in the Past. Since the sentence tells us the ancient epic developed in the past, its phases of evolution also occurred in the past.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is stylistically flawed. Changing from which to with creates an awkward and confusing sentence; it does not clearly express the relation between the later redactions and the core section of the Mahbharata. As a result, it may be understood that Vyasa also wrote the later redactions (the author of A with B and C ...).

In addition, the phrase having evolved from it is wordy and redundant.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the Subject Verb Agreement mistake in the original question, it is grammatically incorrect -- it uses the Present Perfect tense have evolved to describe an action that occurred in the past. 

Since the sentence uses the Past tense to tell us that the ancient epic developed gradually, the same tense should logically be used to describe the later stages of the text's evolution.

Well done!

This answer choice corrects the Subject Verb Agreement mistake in the original question, by changing the singular verb is evolved to the plural verb were evolved. It also corrects the Tense mistake, by using the Past tense to describe an action that occurred in the past.

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the Subject Verb Agreement mistake in the original question. The singular verb is does not agree with the plural subject redactions.

[[snippet]]

In addition, this sentence is stylistically flawed. The use of the possessive form in Vaisampayana's 24,000 verse and Ugrasrava Sauti's 100,000 verse redactions creates a long, complex, and confusing modifying phrase -- an awkward way of describing the two parallel items.

from which is evolved the 24,000 verse redaction of Vaisampayana and the 100,000 verse redaction of Ugrasrava Sauti
with the 24,000 verse redaction of Vaisampayana and the 100,000 verse redaction of Ugrasrava Sauti having evolved from it
from which have evolved the 24,000 verse redaction of Vaisampayana and the 100,000 verse redaction of Ugrasrava Sauti
from which were evolved the 24,000 verse redaction of Vaisampayana and the 100,000 verse redaction of Ugrasrava Sauti
evolved from which is Vaisampayana's 24,000 verse and Ugrasrava Sauti's 100,000 verse redactions