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Sentence Correction: Sentence vs. Clause vs. Fragment

The CIA is not a law enforcement agency, responsible for investigating crimes, but rather that of an intelligence agency whose mission is to gather information in service of national security.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The pronoun that does not logically refer to anything in the earlier part of the sentence.

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The pronoun that does not logically refer to anything in the earlier part of the sentence.

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The pronoun that does not logically refer to anything in the earlier part of the sentence.

[[snippet]]

Well done!

This answer choice corrects the Pronoun mistake in the original question and uses the conjunction phrase but rather to create a correct parallel construction between a law enforcement agency and an intelligence agency.

Note the difference between this answer choice and answer choice E:

crimes, but rather ≠ crimes; rather

The correct answer choice uses a comma (,) before but, while answer choice E uses a semicolon (;) to break the sentence into two clauses, and leaves out the connector but.

The problem with answer choice E is that it uses a semicolon, but does not complete the second clause. E would be correct if each clause - the one before the semicolon, and the one following the semicolon - were a complete clause, with its own subject and verb. However, since the part following the semicolon is not a full clause, the entire sentence is incorrect.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The second part of the sentence (after the semicolon), is a fragment, lacking a main conjugated verb. When using a semicolon what comes before and after it must both constitute full sentences; think of the semicolon as something that separates two full sentences (except that you do not need a capital letter after the semicolon).

Note that the verb is is part of the relative clause (whose mission is...), and therefore does not count as the sentence's main verb.

crimes, but rather that of
crimes, but that of
crimes; it is that of
crimes, but rather
crimes; rather