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Sentence Correction: Redundancy - "as well as"

One of the ironies of contemporary history is that legitimate democratic processes have been exploited for the creation of anti-democratic regimes and when they promulgated and enforced laws denying the right to non-violent political opposition.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The construction A and B (creation and when) requires that A and B belong to the same part of speech. In this case, A (creation) is a noun, whereas B (when) is a relative pronoun, which starts a relative clause.

However, this relative clause needs to be attached or followed by a main clause, and since no main clause ever "arrives" until the end of the sentence - because of the faulty parallelism, we are left with a fragment, that is we are still waiting for the answer to what happens when they promulgated and enforced laws?

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In addition, the pronoun they is ambiguous as it can refer grammatically to any of the preceding plural nouns (ironies, processes, regimes). What helps us identify Pronoun mistakes is the following Stop Sign:

Every pronoun in the underlined part of the sentence or after it

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the grammatical mistake in the original question it is illogical.

By changing that....exploited to exploitation, and when they promulgated and enforced laws to the promulgation and enforcement of laws, the corrected sentence creates a correct grammatical parallelism between A (exploitation) and B (promulgation and enforcement).

However, these changes damage the logical parallelism of the original sentence. The original sentence describes one irony of modern history - the exploitation of democracy for anti-democratic purposes. This one irony is divided into two parts (1) the creation of anti-democratic regimes, (2) promulgation and enforcement of anti-democratic laws.

By making exploitation parallel to promulgation and enforcement, the corrected sentence becomes illogical, because it lists three ironies instead of one.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The construction A and B (promulgation and enforcing) requires that A and B belong to the same part of speech. In this case, A (promulgation) is a noun, whereas B (enforcing) is a verb.

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In addition, this answer choice is stylistically flawed. Using as well as instead of and is redundant.

What helps us identify this mistake is the following Stop Sign:

as well as

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The construction A and B (creation and their) requires that A and B belong to the same part of speech. In this case, A (creation) is a noun, whereas B (their promulgating) is an unconjugated verb.

[[snippet]]

In addition, the use of the pronouns their and them makes this answer choice ambiguous. Their can refer to any of the previous plural nouns ironies, processes, or regimes. Them can refer to any of the above nouns or to laws.

What helps us identify Pronoun mistakes is the following Stop Sign:

Every pronoun in the underlined part of the sentence or after it

Well done!

This answer choice corrects the Parallelism mistake in the original question by correctly constructing the nested parallelism: for the creation and for the [promulgation and enforcement].

that legitimate democratic processes have been exploited for the creation of anti-democratic regimes and when they promulgated and enforced laws denying the right to non-violent political opposition
that legitimate democratic processes have been exploited for the creation of anti-democratic regimes and for the promulgation and enforcement of laws denying the right to non-violent political opposition
the exploitation of legitimate democratic processes to create anti-democratic regimes and the promulgation and enforcement of laws denying the right to non-violent political opposition
that legitimate democratic processes have been exploited for the creation of anti-democratic regimes as well as the promulgation and enforcing of laws denying the right to non-violent political opposition
how legitimate democratic processes have been exploited for the creation of anti-democratic regimes and their promulgating laws that deny the right to non-violent political opposition and enforcing them