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Driven by higher birth rates in Third World countries, the Muslim religion currently has twice as many adherents worldwide as it did in 1970.
While this answer choice correctly uses the comparative construction more...than, it is stylistically flawed. Two times is redundant, as the same meaning can be expressed in fewer words. Look for a more concise answer choice.
What helps us identify this question as a redundancy question as well as identify this mistake is the following Stop Sign:
(multiplied) one/two/three/four times
This answer choice it grammatically correct. It correctly uses the comparative form as .. as, applies the correct quantifier many (because adherents is a count noun), and uses the past tense (it did) to match the time expression at the end of the sentence (in 1970).
This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The quantifier phrase the amount of cannot be used to describe adherents, which is a count noun.
What helps us identify this mistake is the following Stop Sign:
much, (a) little, less, the amount of
This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The verb has in the Present Simple tense does not match the time expression in 1970. This requires a verb in the Past Simple tense.
This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. First, since the word as is not a part of the comparative as ... as, it can only serve as a conjunction beginning a clause, but what follows it is a fragment with no subject (were in 1970).
Secondly, the use of the verb were (as in how many adherents there are) does not logically fit in the comparison with the beginning of the sentence, which refers how many adherents the Muslim religion has.