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Sentence Correction: Sentence vs. Clause vs. Fragment

Being less capable of maintaining thermal regulation of their bodies as babies born to term, prematurely born infants must be placed in incubators until they gain a sufficient amount of fat.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. Less cannot be complemented by as because less indicates a difference between the two things compared whereas as indicates a similarity or equality between them. The correct comparative form is less [adjective] than, not less [adjective] as

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The correct comparative form is less [adjective] than, not less [adjective] compared to

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. Less cannot be complemented by like because less indicates a difference between the two things compared whereas like indicates a similarity or equality between them. The correct comparative form is less [adjective] than, not less [adjective] like

[[snippet]]

Well done!

This answer choice makes correct use of the comparative form less...than. 

Note that this sentence begins with a modifier referring to prematurely born infants:

[ Less capable of maintaining thermal regulation of their bodies than are babies born to term, ] --> prematurely born infants must be placed in incubators until they gain a sufficient amount of fat.

This is equivalent to:

Prematurely born infants [, who are less capable of maintaining thermal regulation of their bodies than are babies born to term, ]  must be placed in incubators until they gain a sufficient amount of fat.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original mistake by using the correct comparative form less ... than, it changes the meaning of the original sentence and makes it illogical.

Adding the words they are (subject+verb) turns the modifier at the beginning into a complete clause. The use of the conjunction although creates a relationship of negation between the two clauses:

Although they are less capable ... than babies born to term, prematurely born infants must be placed in incubators ... .

However, in the original sentence these clauses support rather than contradict one another. The correct conjunction here would be because/since/as:

Because they are less capable ... than babies born to term, prematurely born infants must be placed in incubators ... .

Being less capable of maintaining thermal regulation of their bodies as
Less capable of maintaining thermal regulation of their bodies compared to
Less capable of maintaining thermal regulation of their bodies than are
As they are less capable of maintaining thermal regulation of their bodies like
Although they are less capable of maintaining thermal regulation of their bodies than