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Sentence Correction: Comparatives - As vs. Like

Due to differences in physiology and metabolic response, women who diet and exercise do not lose visceral fat, the adipose tissue surrounding internal organs, as efficiently as men do.   

Well done!

This sentence makes correct grammatical use of a comparative structure and is stylistically sound as it uses a conjugated verb in the second part of the comparison (as efficiently as men do).

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

This answer choice is illogical. The comparative construction requires that the things compared be logically parallel.

The original sentence compares the efficiency with which women and men lose visceral fat.  The corrected sentence, however, compares the efficiency with which women lose visceral fat with men's general weight loss (as men lose weight).

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. A comparative section beginning with as should always include a conjugated verb. The comparative section in this answer choice (as efficient as men), however, does not.

In addition, an adverb should be used to describe a verb. In this sentence, an adjective (efficient) is used to describe a verb (lose).

Incidentally, the use of the relative clause "that surround" to replace the V-ing modifier "surrounding" is a non-issue - both are interchangeable in this particular context. This answer choice is eliminated purely due to the reasons mentioned above. 

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. A comparative section beginning with as should always include a conjugated verb. The comparative section in this answer choice (as men's efficiency at visceral fat loss), however, does not.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the Comparative mistake in the original question, by placing a conjugated verb (do) in the second part of the comparative structure, it is grammatically incorrect. The plural verb surround does not agree with the singular subject tissue.

Incidentally, the use of the relative clause "that surround" to replace the V-ing modifier "surrounding" is a non-issue - both are interchangeable in this particular context. This answer choice is eliminated purely due to the subject verb agreement problem mentioned above.

surrounding internal organs, as efficiently as men do
surrounding internal organs, as efficiently as men lose weight   
that surrounds internal organs, as efficient as men
surrounding internal organs, as men's efficiency at visceral fat loss
that surround internal organs, as efficiently as men do