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Sentence Correction: Relative Clauses - Choosing the Correct Relative Pronoun

According to Malcolm Gladwell, author of The Tipping Point, the dramatic decline in crime rates in New York City in the 1990s is a trend that can be attributed not only to stepping up law enforcement against petty criminals, but because of the fact that the routine presence of beat-cops in the city's neighborhoods created an environment inimical to crime.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. In the GMAT, not only must be complemented by but also.

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In addition, this answer choice is redundant, as it unnecessarily and repetitively uses two phrases (attributed to...because of) to express the reason for the decline in crime rates.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original parallelism error by by properly pairing not only with but also, this answer choice is non-idiomatic.

The verb attribute is used in English with the preposition to, and hence the adjective attributable must also use the preposition to.

Examples:  The broken vase can be fixed with glue.
                   The vase is fixable with glue.
                   The athlete's poor performance can be attributed to her knee injury.
                   The athlete's poor performance is attributable to her knee injury.

In addition, attribute means to assign a reason to something. Therefore, to say attribute because or attributed because is redundant.

Well done!

The same part of speech that follows not only must also follow but also. In this answer choice, not only and but also are followed by the preposition to.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The same part of speech that follows not only must also follow but also. In this answer choice, not only is followed by the preposition from. But also, however, is followed by the reason conjunction due to.

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Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect and does not fit into the sentence. The relative pronoun which must be preceded by a comma.

that can be attributed not only to stepping up law enforcement against petty criminals, but because of the fact
attributable not only because of the fact that law enforcement against petty criminals was stepped-up, but also because of the fact
attributable not only to stepped-up law enforcement against petty criminals, but also to the fact
that resulted not only from stepping up law enforcement against petty criminals, but also due to
which was not just because law enforcement against petty criminals was stepped up, but