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Sentence Correction: Parallelism Questions - Overview

While scholars debate the significance of social and economic factors leading to the industrial revolution, there can be no doubt that technological innovations such as the spinning jenny, the power loom, smelting pig iron with coke in blast furnaces, and the steam engine played a key role.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The first, second, and last items in the of the sentence are nouns (jenny, loom, engine), but the third item is a verb (smelting).

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Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the parallelism mistake in the original question of the sentence, by changing the verb smelting to the noun furnace it changes the meaning of the original question.

The original question lists the action or process of smelting as a central technological innovation of the Industrial Revolution, whereas the corrected sentence lists the furnaces (in which the process takes place) as an innovation. However, blast furnaces may have already existed prior to that time, while they were now put into new use.

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Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the Parallelism mistake in the original sentence, by changing the verb smelting to the noun use of blast furnaces in order to smelt, it is wordy and redundant.

Look for another answer choice that achieves the same result more concisely.

Well done!

This answer choice corrects the Parallelism mistake in the original sentence, by changing the verb smelting (pig iron) to the noun the smelting (of pig iron), thus correcting the parallelism both grammatically and logically.

The sentence uses parallelism to list technological innovations, which include machines (spinning jenny, power loom, engine) and processes (smelting) that were newly invented during the industrial revolution.

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the parallelism mistake in the original question. The first, second and last items in the list of the sentence are nouns (jenny, loom, engine), but the third item is a participle phrase (pig iron being smelt).

In addition, the use of the V+ing form being is awkward.

smelting pig iron with coke in blast furnaces
the blast furnaces for smelting pig iron with coke
the use of blast furnaces in order to smelt pig iron with coke
the smelting of pig iron with coke in blast furnaces
pig iron being smelt in blast furnaces with coke