Don’t lose your progress!

We cover every section of the GMAT with in-depth lessons, 5000+ practice questions and realistic practice tests.

Up to 90+ points GMAT score improvement guarantee

The best guarantee you’ll find

Our Premium and Ultimate plans guarantee up to 90+ points score increase or your money back.

Master each section of the test

Comprehensive GMAT prep

We cover every section of the GMAT with in-depth lessons, 5000+ practice questions and realistic practice tests.

Schedule-free studying

Learn on the go

Study whenever and wherever you want with our iOS and Android mobile apps.

The most effective way to study

Personalized GMAT prep, just for you!

Adaptive learning technology focuses on your academic weaknesses.

Sentence Correction: Sentence vs. Clause vs. Fragment

Proto-geneticist Gregor Mendel chose the common pea Pisum Sativum for his experiments because they can be cross-pollinated with other plants and also exhibit opposing pairs of traits, such as flowers that are either purple or yellow and either a constricted or an inflated pod.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect and illogical. The plural pronoun they does not agree with the singular noun pea to which it refers. 

What helps us identify the Pronoun mistake in this question is the following Stop Sign:

Every pronoun in the underlined part of the sentence or after it

In addition, Flowers are not a trait. A trait is a characteristic of someone or something.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the Pronoun mistake in the original sentence, by changing they to it, it is grammatically incorrect. The plural verb exhibit does not agree with the singular subject it.

What helps identify this question as a Subject Verb Agreement question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:

A long, complex subject or a great distance between subject and verb

In addition, this answer choice is illogical; Flowers are not a trait. A trait is a characteristic of someone or something.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the Pronoun mistake in the original sentence, by changing they to it, it is grammatically incorrect and illogical.

By changing the conjugated verb exhibit to the non-conjugated verb exhibiting, this answer choice violates the Parallelism of the original sentence and creates a fragment; the clause that begins after and also is missing a conjugated verb to go with the subject it.

What helps us identify this question as a Parallelism question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:

A and/or/but B

Also, Flowers are not a trait. A trait is a characteristic of someone or something.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the Pronoun mistake in the original question, by changing they to it and exhibit (plural) to exhibits , and corrects the logical mistake by changing flowers to flowering to describe a trait of the pea plant, it violates the parallelism of the sentence.

The action flowering is neither grammatically nor logically parallel to the second example of a trait appearing in the last part of the sentence: either a constricted or an inflated pod.

What helps us identify this question as a Parallelism question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:

A and/or/but B

See if you can find an answer choice that creates a correct parallelism with the last part of the sentence.

Excellent!

This answer choice corrects the Pronoun mistake in the original question, by changing they to it and exhibit (plural) to exhibits (singular). It also corrects the logical mistake by changing flowers that ... purple to having either purple or yellow flowers as an example of a trait of the pea plant.

The addition of the verb having...flowers creates a correct parallelism with the last part of the sentence [having]...either a constricted or an inflated pod.

Although this is not the most concise answer choice, it is the only one that is both grammatically correct and logical.

they can be cross-pollinated with other plants and also exhibit opposing pairs of traits, such as flowers that are either purple or yellow
it can be cross-pollinated with other plants and also exhibit opposing pairs of traits, such as flowers that are either purple or yellow
it can be cross-pollinated with other plants and also exhibiting opposing pairs of traits, such as flowers that are either purple or yellow
it can be cross-pollinated with other plants and also exhibits opposing pairs of traits, such as flowering in purple or yellow
it can be cross-pollinated with other plants and also exhibits opposing pairs of traits, such as having either purple or yellow flowers