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Sentence Correction: Parallelism - A and/or/but B

The best strategy for preventing hip fractures among residents of geriatric homes is to eliminate hazards from the residential environment before bone-loss develops, combined with balance training and to encourage an increase of bone-density through diet and weight-bearing exercise.

Incorrect.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The construction A and B (balance training and to encourage) requires that A and B belong to the same part of speech. In this case, A (balance training) is a noun, whereas B (to encourage) is a verb.

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In addition, the original sentence is illogically constructed. Removing hazards from the environment can help prevent falls that cause hip fractures, but prevention of bone loss is directly tied to diet and exercise and it is more logical to place this phrase adjacent to the issue of bone-density.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The construction A and B (to eliminate and a combination) requires that A and B belong to the same part of speech. In this case, A (to eliminate) is a verb whereas B (a combination) is a noun.

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Incorrect.

This answer choice is illogical.  The construction A and B (eliminated and combined) requires that A and B be logically parallel.

In the corrected sentence, the verb eliminated refers to the subject hazards. For the sentence to be logical, the grammatically parallel form combined should also refer to the same subject.

However, it is illogical to say that hip fractures will be prevented if hazards...are combined with balance training.

Also, the if, which makes the sentence into a conditional does not need to be there, as the best strategy does not depend on a condition but rather the original sentence describes the best strategy as being something concrete, without condition. By adding the conditional if the meaning of the sentence changes and signifies that it is the best strategy if certain conditions are met.

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Well done!

This answer choice corrects the parallel construction and logical sequence of the original sentence. 

By placing the phrase combined with balance training between commas, the corrected sentence creates a correct parallel construction to eliminate and...to encourage.

By moving the phrase before bone loss develops to the end of the underlined section, the logical cause and effect sequence of the sentence is improved.  

Incorrect.

This answer choice is illogical. By introducing the subject residents in the corrected sentence, the structure and meaning of the sentence change and the verbs combine and encourage are placed in a grammatically correct- but illogical - parallel construction.

Although grammatically correct, it is illogical to say that residents should combine balance training and encourage an increase of bone-density, etc. To combine means to add one thing to another, but in the corrected sentence balance training stands alone and is not combined with anything.

Note that if the corrected sentence proposed that residents combine balance training and flexibility exercises, this would be logical. In this case, the parallelism would involve two nouns (training //exercises) rather than two verbs (combine//encourage) which are grammatically but not logically parallel.

Also, the if, which makes the sentence into a conditional does not need to be there, as the best strategy does not depend on a condition but rather the original sentence describes the best strategy as being something concrete, without condition. By adding the conditional if the meaning of the sentence changes and signifies that it is only the best strategy if certain conditions are met.

to eliminate hazards from the residential environment before bone-loss develops, combined with balance training and to encourage an increase of bone-density through diet and weight-bearing exercise
to eliminate hazards from the residential environment and a combination of balance training to encourage an increase of bone-density through diet and weight-bearing exercise, before bone-loss develops
if hazards are eliminated from the residential environment and combined with balance training and to encourage an increase of bone-density through diet and weight-bearing exercise, before bone-loss develops
to eliminate hazards from the residential environment and, combined with balance training, to encourage an increase of bone-density through diet and weight-bearing exercise, before bone-loss develops.
if before bone-loss develops, residents combine balance training and encourage an increase of bone-density with diet and weight-bearing exercise while residential environments are eliminated of hazards