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Sentence Correction: Tenses - Past Simple and Progressive

For more than five decades, the International Monetary Fund has been implementing its structural adjustment policies in developing countries as a way toward improved economic outcomes and demands financial transparency from participating governments.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The word for indicates that the sentence should be in the Present Perfect tense, however, the verb in the underlined section is in the Present (demands).

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Well done!

This answer choice corrects the Verb Tense mistake in the original question by changing the Present Simple verb demands to the Present Perfect (progressive) form [has been] demanding.

Note that since the first verb in the parallel construction includes the conjugated verb has been [implementing], it is unnecessary to repeat has been in the second part of the parallelism.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the Verb Tense mistake in the original question, by changing the Present Simple verb demands, to a noun phrase a demand for, it is illogical and changes the meaning of the original sentence.

The corrected sentence creates a new parallel construction of two nouns (outcomes and a demand for). However, while it is fine to say that the goal is toward improving economic outcomes, it does not make sense to say that the goal is toward a demand for something or other. The logical parallelism should therefore be between the verbs implement and demand.

What helps us identify this question as a Parallelism question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:

A and/or/but B

When you identify this structure, make sure it follows these rules:

1. A and B must be of the same part of speech.
2. A and B must be logically parallel.

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the Verb Tense mistake in the original question. The word for indicates that the sentence should be in the Present Perfect tense, however, the verb in the underlined section is in the PresentSimple (demands).

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In addition, by changing improved economic outcomes to economically improved outcomes, the corrected sentence changes the meaning of the original question. The use of the adjective in improved economic outcomes tells us what kind of improved outcomes they were - economic ones. The use of the adverb in economically improved outcomes tells us how the improved outcomes were achieved - by economic means or solutions.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The word for indicates that the sentence should be in the Present Perfect tense, however, the verb in the underlined section is in the Past Simple (demanded).

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improved economic outcomes and demands
improved economic outcomes and demanding
improving economic outcomes and a demand for
economically improved outcomes and demands
improved economic outcomes and demanded