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Sentence Correction: Sentence vs. Clause vs. Fragment

Puzzling elements of human anatomy and behavior, such as having small jaws, the late eruption of teeth, and a tendency for playfulness, can be explained with the term neoteny, which is the retention of features of the immature specimen in the adult of the same species. 

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The first item in the list is a non-conjugated verb (having), but the last two are nouns (eruption, tendency).

This answer choice is also illogical. The pronoun which refers to the term neoteny not to neoteny. It is incorrect to say a word or a term is the same thing as what it refers to:

Incorrect: The word precipitation is not only rain. It is also snow and hail.

Instead, a word is said to refer to something, to describe something, or to mean something:

Correct: The word precipitation does not only mean rain. It also refers to snow and hail.

The following Stop Sign helps us identify such mistakes:

The word/term...   (which/it) is...

Well done!

By changing having small jaws to small jaws (noun), this answer choice corrects the Parallelism mistake in the original sentence. It also corrects the logical mistake by changing is the retention to refers to the retention.

A word or term cannot be followed by is; it cannot refer to itself. It can, however, refer to/define/ describe a certain meaning.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original Parallelism mistake by changing having small jaws (verb) to small jaws (noun), and also corrects the logical mistake by changing is the retention to refers to the retention, it creates a new grammatical mistake.

The corrected sentence is a fragment. By eliminating the words can be, the subject of the sentence Puzzling elements is left lacking a conjugated verb.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect and illogical.

This answer choice corrects the Parallelism mistake in the original question, by changing the list of three items with one verb (having) and two nouns (eruption, tendency) into a list of two verbs [tending... and having {jaws and teeth} that erupt late]. However, this change creates a new logical mistake, as only teeth can be said to erupt late; jaws don't erupt.

This answer choice also corrects the original logical mistake by changing which is to which means. We cannot say the word/term...is. Rather we should say, the word/term means/refers to/describes...However, it creates a new mistake because the corrected sentence does not fit into the original sentence.

It is incorrect to say: which means to retain of. A noun or noun replacement is required before of.

Incorrect.

teeth that erupt late is redundant, as well as incorrect

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original Parallelism mistake by changing having small jaws (verb) to small jaws (noun), and also corrects the logical mistake by changing is the retention to refers to the retention, it creates a new grammatical mistake.

Verb+ing (retaining) can be used as a noun replacement only when there's no actual noun. Since there is a real noun -retention - it should be used.

having small jaws, the late eruption of teeth, and a tendency for playfulness, can be explained with the term neoteny, which is the retention
small jaws, the late eruption of teeth, and a tendency for playfulness, can be explained with the term neoteny, which refers to the retention
small jaws, the late eruption of teeth, and a tendency to be playful, explained with the term neoteny, which refers to the retention
tending to be playful and having small jaws and teeth that erupt late, can be explained with the term neoteny, which means to retain
small jaws, late-erupting teeth, and a tendency for playfulness, can be explained with the term neoteny, which means the retaining