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Undeterred by the adversary's superior numbers, Genghis Khan's Mongol troops stormed the mountain pass called Badger's Mouth, massacred thousands of Jin soldiers, and their army was thrown into utter disarray.
This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The first two items in the list of the sentence are verbs (stormed, massacred), but the last item is a clause (their army was thrown into utter disarray).[[snippet]]
In addition, this sentence contains a Pronoun Ambiguity mistake. The pronoun their can refer to soldiers, troops, or numbers - all plural nouns.
This answer choice is grammatically incorrect, because it is a fragment, lacking a conjugated verb. Although this answer choice appears to correct the Parallelism mistake in the original question, by creating a list of three verbs with parallel V+ing forms (storming, massacring, and throwing), this is not enough to make the sentence grammatical. Every sentence must have at least one conjugated verb.
Although this answer choice corrects the Pronoun Ambiguity mistake in the original question, by changing their army to the Jin army, it repeats the Parallelism mistake in the original question. The first two items in the list of the sentence are verbs (stormed, massacred), but the last item is a clause (and the Jin army was utterly disarrayed).[[snippet]]
This answer choice corrects the Parallelism mistake in the original question, by replacing the clause their army was thrown with a verb threw, which is parallel to stormed and massacred. The third verb in the list threw now shares the same subject (Genghis Khan's troops) as the first two verbs.
This answer choice also corrects the Pronoun Ambiguity mistake in the original question, by changing the pronoun their to the Jin army, which serves as the object of the verb threw.
This answer choice is also stylistically superior because it eliminates awkward the passive construction: their army was thrown, etc.
This answer choice violates the Parallelism of the actions as presented in the original sentence and also changes the meaning of the sentence.
In the original sentence, Ghengis Khan's troops were the subject of the verbs stormed and massacred - the first and second items in the list. Therefore we expect the third item in the Parallelism list to be a verb describing the troops' actions.
However, in the corrected sentence, there is no third action.The verb massacred turns into a noun massacre, and a new clause begins. In the corrected sentence, the massacre of thousands is the subject of the verb threw (instead of the troops), changing the meaning of the sentence.[[snippet]]