Don’t lose your progress!

We cover every section of the GMAT with in-depth lessons, 5000+ practice questions and realistic practice tests.

Up to 90+ points GMAT score improvement guarantee

The best guarantee you’ll find

Our Premium and Ultimate plans guarantee up to 90+ points score increase or your money back.

Master each section of the test

Comprehensive GMAT prep

We cover every section of the GMAT with in-depth lessons, 5000+ practice questions and realistic practice tests.

Schedule-free studying

Learn on the go

Study whenever and wherever you want with our iOS and Android mobile apps.

The most effective way to study

Personalized GMAT prep, just for you!

Adaptive learning technology focuses on your academic weaknesses.

Sentence Correction: Sentence vs. Clause vs. Fragment

Undeterred by the adversary's superior numbers, Genghis Khan's Mongol troops stormed the mountain pass called Badger's Mouth, massacred thousands of Jin soldiers, and their army was thrown into utter disarray.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The first two items in the list of the sentence are verbs (stormed, massacred), but the last item is a clause (their army was thrown into utter disarray).

[[snippet]]

In addition, this sentence contains a Pronoun Ambiguity mistake. The pronoun their can refer to soldiers, troops, or numbers - all plural nouns.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect, because it is a fragment, lacking a conjugated verb. Although this answer choice appears to correct the Parallelism mistake in the original question, by creating a list of three verbs with parallel V+ing forms (storming, massacring, and throwing), this is not enough to make the sentence grammatical. Every sentence must have at least one conjugated verb.

Incorrect.

Although this answer choice corrects the Pronoun Ambiguity mistake in the original question, by changing their army to the Jin army, it repeats the Parallelism mistake in the original question. The first two items in the list of the sentence are verbs (stormed, massacred), but the last item is a clause (and the Jin army was utterly disarrayed).

[[snippet]]

Well done!

[[snippet]]

This answer choice corrects the Parallelism mistake in the original question, by replacing the clause their army was thrown with a verb threw, which is parallel to stormed and massacred. The third verb in the list threw now shares the same subject (Genghis Khan's troops) as the first two verbs.

This answer choice also corrects the Pronoun Ambiguity mistake in the original question, by changing the pronoun their to the Jin army, which serves as the object of the verb threw.

This answer choice is also stylistically superior because it eliminates awkward the passive construction: their army was thrown, etc

Incorrect.

This answer choice violates the Parallelism of the actions as presented in the original sentence and also changes the meaning of the sentence.

In the original sentence, Ghengis Khan's troops were the subject of the verbs stormed and massacred - the first and second items in the list. Therefore we expect the third item in the Parallelism list to be a  verb describing the troops' actions.

However, in the corrected sentence, there is no third action.The verb massacred turns into a noun massacre, and a new clause begins. In the corrected sentence, the massacre of thousands is the subject of the verb threw (instead of the troops), changing the meaning of the sentence.

[[snippet]]
stormed the mountain pass called Badger's Mouth, massacred thousands of Jin soldiers, and their army was thrown into utter disarray
storming the mountain pass called Badger's Mouth, massacring thousands of Jin soldiers, and throwing the army into utter disarray
stormed through the mountain passage called Badger's Mouth, massacred thousands of Jin soldiers, and the Jin army was utterly disarrayed
stormed the mountain pass called Badger's Mouth, massacred thousands of Jin soldiers, and threw the Jin army into utter disarray
stormed the Badger's mouth mountain pass, and the massacre of thousands of the Jin army threw it into disarray