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Sentence Correction: Sentence vs. Clause vs. Fragment

Over 70 million years ago, the tectonic movements that caused the formation of the Rocky Mountains in a series of pulses during a mountain-building process known as the Laramide orogeny also resulted in the creation of the volcanic system known as the Coast Range Arc. 

Incorrect.

This answer choice changes the meaning of the original sentence by changing the subject of the sentence from the tectonic movements to the Laramide orogeny. In the original sentence, the tectonic movements (not the Laramide orogeny) resulted in the creation of the volcanic system, etc. 

Incorrect.

This answer choice changes the meaning of the original sentence by changing the subject of the sentence from the tectonic movements to the Laramide orogeny. In the original sentence, the tectonic movements (not the Laramide orogeny) resulted in the creation of the volcanic system, etc. 

In addition, the phrase a mountain-building process of the Rocky Mountains is awkward and unidiomatic as the mountain building process does not belong to the Rocky Mountains.   

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. By changing the conjugated verb resulted to a non-conjugated verb resulting, the corrected sentence becomes a fragment.

In addition, this answer choice unnecessarily changes that caused into causing, but it is more logical to describe this action in the Past Simple tense (caused) as it occurred in the distant past and does not continue today.

Incorrect.

This answer choice creates an illogical combination of subject and verbThe Rocky Mountains ...resulted ... The Rocky Mountains are not an action or a process that can result in something. 

Furthermore, this answer choice is ambiguous: it is unclear whether The Rocky Mountains or the Laramide orogeny were caused by the tectonic movements.

Great!

The subject of the original sentence, the tectonic movements, is modified by the following relative clause:

that caused the formation of the Rocky Mountains in a series of pulses during a mountain-building period process known as the Laramide orogeny

After verifying there are no mistakes in this relative clause, we may ignore it. The rest of the sentence is still correct:

... the tectonic movements ... also resulted in the creation of the volcanic system known as the Coast Range Arc. 

Over 70 million years ago, the tectonic movements that caused the formation of the Rocky Mountains in a series of pulses during a mountain-building process known as the Laramide orogeny also resulted
Caused by tectonic movements in a series of pulses, the Laramide orogeny, which is the process through which the Rocky Mountains were formed over 70 million years ago, also resulted
The Laramide orogeny, a mountain-building process of the Rocky Mountains, caused by tectonic movements in a series of pulses over 70 million years ago, also resulted
Over 70 million years ago, the tectonic movements causing the formation in a series of pulses of the Rocky Mountains during a mountain-building process known as the Laramide orogeny, also resulting
The Rocky Mountains, formed over 70 million years ago during the mountain-building period process known as the Laramide orogeny, caused by tectonic movements in a series of pulses, resulted