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Sentence Correction: Relative Clauses - Choosing the Correct Relative Pronoun

Established in 1945 upon the demise of the League of Nations, the United Nations' General Assembly, comprised of all the nations who are signatories to the UN charter, plays a crucial role in sustaining international agreements concerning human rights, global trade, and environmental protection

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The relative pronoun who can only refer to a human subject.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The plural verb play does not agree with the singular subject Assembly. Even though assembly is a collection of people, it remains as a singular unit, NOT a plural one.

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In addition, this answer choice introduces a parallelism mistake by changing the noun phrase environmental protection appearing at the end of list of parallel noun phrases (human rights, global trade, and environmental protection), with the verb protect.

What helps us identify the mistake in this answer choice is the following Stop Sign:

A list of 3 items or more, separated by commas and and/or before the last item.

Well done!

This answer choice corrects the pronoun mistake in the original sentence by replacing the pronoun who at the beginning of the relative clause with that. Remember that who can only refer to a human subject. In this sentence, Nations is the non-human subject to which the relative pronoun refers.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the pronoun mistake in the original sentence by changing who to which, the use of the non-defining relative pronoun which changes the meaning of the sentence. In this answer choice, the Assembly is comprised of all nations and all nations had to sign the UN charter. However, in the original sentence, the Assembly is comprised only of the nations that signed the UN charter.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the pronoun mistake in the original sentence by changing the relative pronoun who to that, it introduces a new mistake by unnecessarily changing the verb plays in the Present Simple tense to is playing in the Present Progressive tense.

The Present Simple is appropriate for describing facts or generalizations, as in this sentence. The Present Progressive is used for describing actions that are in progress at the moment, and is inappropriate in the context of this sentence.

nations who are signatories to the UN charter, plays a crucial role in sustaining international agreements concerning human rights, global trade, and environmental protection
signatories to the UN charter, play a crucial role in sustaining international agreements concerning human rights, global trade, and protect the environment
nations that are signatories to the UN charter, plays a crucial role in sustaining international agreements concerning human rights, global trade, and environmental protection
nations, which were signatories to the UN charter, plays a crucial role in sustaining international agreements concerning human rights, global trade, and environmental protection
nations that are signatories to the UN charter, is playing a crucial role in sustaining international agreements concerning human rights, global trade, and environmental protection