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Sentence Correction: Subject Verb Agreement - X of Y Subject

The local chapter of the Bike Riders' Association has repeatedly railed against the municipal authorities, protesting that requiring them to wear bike helmets, even on off-road cycling paths, limit their civil liberties.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The plural verb limit does not agree with the singular subject requiring.

[[snippet]]

In addition this answer choice is ambiguous because the pronoun them should refer grammatically to the riders, but this is unclear as them can also refer to the municipal authorities, making it seem as if the authorities are the ones required to wear helmets. 

What helps us identify this question as a Pronoun question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:

Every pronoun in the underlined part of the sentence or after it

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original Subject Verb Agreement mistake, by changing the plural verb limit to the singular verb limits so that it agrees with the singular subject to require, it is both illogical and stylistically flawed.

This answer choice is ambiguous because the pronoun they should refer grammatically to the riders, but this is unclear as they can also refer to the municipal authorities and this makes it seem as if the authorities are the ones required to wear helmets.

What helps us identify this question as a Pronoun question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:

Every pronoun in the underlined part of the sentence or after it

In addition, To require that they wear bike helmets is a less concise way of saying requiring them to wear helmets.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. In the corrected sentence, the singular verb is does not agree with the plural subject the requirements of wearing bike helmets.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the Subject Verb Agreement mistake in the original sentence, by changing the plural verb limit to the singular verb limits, it is both illogical and stylistically flawed.

The pronoun their is ambiguous because it can refer to either of the plural nouns helmets or the municipal authorities, neither of which option, by the way, is logical in the context of the sentence.

What helps us identify this question as a Pronoun question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign:

Every pronoun in the underlined part of the sentence or after it

In addition, the awkward phrase even though is an unnecessary change to the original sentence. 

Well done!

This answer choice corrects the Subject Verb Agreement mistake in the original sentence by changing the plural verb limit to the singular verb limits. It also corrects the logical/ambiguity mistake in the sentence by replacing the pronoun them with the noun cyclists, clarifying who is required to wear bike helmets.

[[snippet]]
requiring them to wear bike helmets, even on off-road cycling paths, limit their civil liberties
to require that they wear bike helmets, even when cycling off-road, limits their civil liberties
the requirements of wearing bike helmets, even on off-road cycling paths, is a limitation on cyclists' civil liberties
requiring helmets even though during off-road cycling, limits their civil liberties
requiring cyclists to wear bike helmets, even when cycling off-road, limits their civil liberties