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Sentence Correction: Relative Clauses - Choosing the Correct Relative Pronoun

The application of discrete paintbrush strokes of unmixed primary colors directly onto the canvas results in the simulation of the way the eye actually perceives light; this painting style, with the bold effects and stark emotive power that scandalized the public when first presented, is known as Impressionism.

Well done!

This answer choice is grammatically correct, because the singular verb is agrees with the singular subject painting style.

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Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect, because the plural verb are does not agree with the singular subject painting style.

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect because the plural verb are does not agree with the singular subject painting style.

[[snippet]]

In addition, this answer choice introduces a change in meaning by replacing the word effects with affects.

Effect is a noun, close in meaning to result or consequence. In this sentence bold effects means the bold appearance of the paint, the result of the painting style.

Affect can either be a verb (to influence) or a noun meaning feeling or emotion. Its use as a noun in the corrected sentence is not logical, because a painting style does not itself have feelings.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect because it changes the conjugated verb is to a non-conjugated verb being, creating a fragment. In the corrected sentence, the subject this painting style is missing a conjugated verb.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The pronoun that (when used as a relative pronoun) cannot appear after a comma, while which must appear after a comma. In this, that and which are different from all other relative pronouns, which can follow a comma or not follow a comma.

Whenever you see one of the following Stop Signs:

  • Who, which, that, whose, whom:  check that
    (a) the relative pronoun immediately follows the noun it describes;
    (b) the correct relative pronoun is used; and
    (c) the use of defining and non-defining clauses is correct.
bold effects and stark emotive power that scandalized the public when first presented, is
bold effects and stark emotive power that scandalized the public when first presented, are
bold affects and stark emotive power causing a public scandal when first presented, are
scandalous emotive power and bold effects of its first presentation to the public, being
bold effects and stark emotive power, that scandalized the public when first presented, is