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Sentence Correction: Subject Verb Agreement - X of Y Subject

To public health officials, monitoring infectious diseases present a complex set of challenges, especially in countries that lack the bureaucratic infrastructure necessary for keeping records on every case of illness. 

Incorrect.

This sentence is grammatically incorrect because the singular subject monitoring does not agree with the plural verb present.

[[snippet]]

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the Subject Verb Agreement mistake in the original sentence, by matching the plural verb present with the singular subject the monitoring [of infectious diseases].

[[snippet]]

Also, pay attention to the following stop sign:

An X of Y subject

In addition, this sentence is stylistically flawed, because the phrase each and every case is redundant.

Incorrect.

While this answer choice corrects the original Subject Verb Agreement mistake, by changing the plural verb present to the singular verb presents, it creates another grammatical mistake. 

In the second part of the sentence, the singular subject infrastructure does not agree with the plural verb are lacking.

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect because the corrected sentence is a fragment, lacking a conjugated verb.

The way to identify that the sentence is a fragment is by reading until the end of the sentence, and searching for a conjugated verb that can be matched with a subject.

In answering this question you may have thought that Presenting was the subject, or perhaps monitoring. The next step is to ask what does presenting or monitoring do? No conjugated verb appears later in the sentence that answers this question, therefore, the sentence is a fragment.

Well done!

This answer choice corrects the Subject Verb Agreement mistake in the original sentence, by replacing the plural verb present with the singular verb presents.

[[snippet]]
To public health officials, monitoring infectious diseases present a complex set of challenges, especially in countries that lack the bureaucratic infrastructure necessary for keeping records on every case of illness.
In countries lacking the bureaucratic infrastructure to keep records on each and every case of illness, the monitoring of infectious diseases present a complex set of challenges to public health officials.
Monitoring infectious diseases presents a complex set of challenges to public health officials in countries where infrastructure are lacking the ability to keep records on every case of illness.
Presenting a complex set of challenges to public health officials, monitoring infectious diseases in countries lacking the infrastructure to keep records on every case of illness.
The monitoring of infectious diseases presents a complex set of challenges to public health officials in countries that lack the bureaucratic infrastructures necessary for keeping records on every case of illness.