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Critical Reasoning: Inference Questions

Monarchy, a stable form of government for many centuries, came under greater and greater social pressure in the 18th and 19th centuries, in particular in Europe and in North America. In many countries, the end result was a complete change of regime.

Which of the following conclusions is most strongly supported by the information above?

Incorrect.

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It makes no difference that this answer choice is historically correct. It is a new premise, which is not an acceptable answer in inference questions. Remember, we are looking for a conclusion, not a premise.

Incorrect.

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We are told of only one reason for the regime changes: social pressure (Premise B). To conclude that there were many reasons is, therefore, a leap. Remember, we are looking for a small step forward.

Quite right, your highness!

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Since some of the monarchies in the beginning of the 18th century weren't monarchies by the beginning of the 20th century, you were more likely to be living in a monarchy during the former rather than during the latter.

Note that this answer choice does rely on a certain unwritten assumption that the socio-political situation in the other parts of the world, outside Europe, is either unchanged, or reflects the same de-monarchizing trend that occurred in Europe. In this sense, answer choice E is less than perfect, but remember that in the GMAT it is frequently necessary to opt for the best answer choice among the five given, not the perfect answer choice.

Incorrect.

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We are told nothing of democracy as a form of government, so to infer anything having to do with democracy would require a leap, whereas we are looking for a small step.

Incorrect.

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We are indeed told that there were many regime changes(Premise C). However, many doesn't mean most. To infer that would be a leap, whereas we are looking to make a small step.

By the end of the nineteenth century, most monarchies in Europe and North America were replaced by democracies.
Most countries which were monarchic in Europe and North America at the beginning of the 18th century had a different form of government by the end of the 19th century.
Though accepted in the twentieth century by certain countries, communism has philosophical and social roots dating to the 18th and 19th centuries.
You were more likely to live in a monarchy on the eve of the 18th century than you were on the eve of the 20th century.
There were many reasons for the regime changes of the 18th and 19th centuries.