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Critical Reasoning: Conclusion Weakening Questions

Ports, extremely expensive not only to develop, but also to maintain, earn revenues through fees paid by shipping companies exporting or importing goods through the port. Ports in countries that are completely self-reliant in terms of the manufacturing and production of commodities, raw materials and resources in general must generate lower incomes than ports of a similar size in countries that produce only a portion of their goods and resources since the latter are more likely to enjoy higher levels of activity than the former, and in turn, earn more income from fees being paid.

Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the argument's conclusion?



This answer choice neither weakens nor strengthens the conclusion. The conclusion compares between the financial situations of different kinds of ports, but this answer choice discusses different countries.



This answer neither weakens nor strengthens the conclusion. The argument focuses on the earnings of two kinds of ports. The reasons for which ports import and\or export are irrelevant since they have nothing to do with how much they earn when they export and\or import.



This answer choice neither weakens nor strengthens the conclusion. Since the information in this statement applies to both kinds of port while the conclusion compares between the ports, it cannot help us attack the argument's position.



This answer choice strengthens the conclusion. If ports that deal in two-way trading attract business and investors than they are definitely likely to earn more than those that mostly handle export.

Fantastic work!


This answer choice attacks the argument's assumption. If export fees include an extra commission, this makes them higher than import fees. This means that a port that deals mostly in export will earn more than one that deals with both export and import, perhaps even if it accommodates lower levels of shipping activity.

Countries that enjoy high levels of production, whether industrial or agricultural, to the point that they become almost completely self-reliant, are always in a position of greater financial strength and stability than those that do not enjoy such abundant production.
Ports that choose to accommodate higher rates of exportation, as opposed importation, do not always do so because of a lack of a necessity for imported goods, but instead in some cases because of their proximity to sources of raw materials.
Because of the enormous expenses inherent to the successful operation of an active port, the accumulation of income from trade activity through the port is to continue for years before a port can begin to generate profits from its activity.
Ports that function as trading points for both importation and exportation acquire a reputation for being centers of financial activity and economical growth, thereby attracting the business of additional companies and the interest of investors.
Fees paid to a certain port by ships initiating the exportation of goods from that port, according to international shipping laws, must include a commission based on the profits earned by the retail of the wares carried by those ships.