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# Critical Reasoning: Boldface Type Questions

An engineering firm has suggested the construction of an underwater oil pipe to complete the supply route of an oil system connecting the source of the oil to various power stations. The route crosses a 1.3 mile-wide river, and to build a bridge for the pipe would cost twice as much as it would to lay the pipe on the riverbed. In order to reduce the risk of water pollution caused by ruptures between the pipe's segments due to water pressure, a fairly likely occurrence at some point in the pipe's duration of use, the government rightly plans to opt for the construction of a bridge.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]

While this answer choice defines the first boldface part correctly, it defines the second incorrectly. The second boldface portion does not contradict the author's position, but instead supports it. The author's position in favor of constructing a bridge is indicated by the fact that he considers that the government's decision is right.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]

Although this answer choice defines the first boldface part correctly, it defines the second incorrectly. The second boldface portion cannot be defined as a viewpoint since it is not a judgment or an opinion of any kind. A viewpoint must describe the personal view of someone on a particular subject.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]

The phrase establish grounds means to provide logical support. However, the first boldface portion contains a comparison that weakens the argument's conclusion by saying that the author's preferred plan - a bridge - would cost far more than an underwater pipe would. You can immediately eliminate answer choices that incorrectly define the first boldface part; do not waste time reading the rest.

Incorrect.

[[snippet]]

The first boldface portion cannot be described as a proposal since it does not resemble a plan or suggestion of any kind. It is simply a factual statement that compares the cost of two different types of pipe. You can immediately eliminate answer choices that incorrectly define the first boldface part; do not waste time reading the rest.

Very nicely done!

[[snippet]]

The argument presents two possible plans to complete the pipeline: lay it underwater; lay it over the water. The author favors the plan of the bridge. The first boldface portion weakens the bridge option by stating that it's relatively expensive. The second boldface portion is the logical reasoning behind the government's choice to choose the bridge despite its higher cost.

The first explains circumstances that call the position taken by the author into question; the second holds factual information which contradicts that position.
The first provides a description of a certain factor which may weaken the argument's favored viewpoint; the second is that viewpoint.
The first is a comparison formulated in order to establish grounds for the argument's conclusion; the second is the aim leading to that conclusion.
The first is evidence in support of the position that the argument chooses to undermine; the second is the reasoning behind the questioning of that position.
The first is a proposal that is supported by the position of the argument; the second is further evidence used to strengthen that proposal.